ߧ 10

ѧܧڧ ݧӧѧ ڧ֧ާ ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ߧڧ

ݧѧߧ .. ѧܧڧ ݧӧѧ ڧ֧ާ ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ߧڧ


֧ӧԧ ڧ٧էѧߧڧ էѧߧߧԧ ݧӧѧ (1981) ߧ ܧ ٧ܧ ҧݧ ӧ֧ߧ ݧ֧էڧ ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ݧӧѧ:

ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ݧӧѧ/. . . ѧѧӧ, . . ԧܧ ڧ. ., 1931;


ѧܧڧ ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ݧӧѧ-֧ާѧڧ/ . . . ֧, ֧. . . ݧѧߧ. ., 1974. ѧ֧ ҧݧ ڧ٧էѧߧ:

ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ݧӧѧ / ֧. . . ѧӧէӧ, . . ѧا, . . ڧߧ֧ߧܧ, . . ާӧ, . . ڧ, . . ѧܧڧߧ, . . ֧ӧܧԧ. ., 1983.

ѧߧߧ ݧӧѧ ݧڧڧ էԧڧ ڧ٧ݧѧԧѧ֧ ڧ֧ާ ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ߧڧ, ܧѧ ֧֧ڧ֧ܧ ҧߧӧѧߧ ާߧԧѧڧ ѧӧ ?ڧ֧ާ ڧݧԧڧ ֧ڧ ѧا֧ߧڧ? (., 1982), ѧ ?ڧ֧ާߧ ܧѧ֧ӧ ڧڧ֧ܧڧ ӧݧ֧ߧڧ? (?ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ اߧѧ?, 1982, ? 2) է էԧڧ ѧ֧. ާ ԧ, ӧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ߧڧ էѧߧ ӧ֧ӧڧ ֧ҧӧѧߧڧާ, ڧէ ڧ ݧ֧էڧ ݧا֧ߧڧ.

ڧݧԧڧ, ܧѧ ݧҧѧ ߧѧܧ, ڧ֧ާ ֧ڧ ާ֧է ڧ ڧާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ߧ֧ߧڧ; ֧ڧ ڧ֧ާ ߧڧ.

?ħ ߧڧ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ ӧ֧ҧѧ٧ߧ ( NB: ӧ֧ҧѧ٧ߧ էڧѧݧ֧ܧڧ֧ܧ!!) ѧاѧ֧ ڧէ?, ڧѧ . . ֧ߧڧ.

ާ ڧ֧ާ ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ߧڧ ާԧѧ֧ ٧ߧѧ ڧ֧ާ ڧڧ֧ܧڧ ӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧ ܧѧاէԧ ڧ ߧڧ.

ߧӧߧѧ ֧ݧ էѧߧߧԧ ݧӧѧ. ?ѧاէ ߧڧ ߧѧէڧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ߧ֧ߧڧ,
ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ӧ٧ ӧ֧ާ ѧݧߧާ? է֧ܧڧӧѧ . . ֧ߧڧ.

ާ ݧӧѧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ӧ٧ ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ߧڧ ڧ ڧ֧ާ.
ߧڧ ӧѧاѧ ݧӧѧާ, , ڧ٧ߧ ڧ, ݧէ ҧާ֧ߧڧӧѧ ߧڧާ.

ߧ֧ܧݧܧ է ݧ, -ѧ٧ߧާ ҧ֧֧ڧӧѧڧ ҧާ֧ ߧѧߧާ ߧڧާ:


ҧէ֧ߧߧ ݧӧ ѧ٧ԧӧߧ ֧, ܧ ӧ֧էߧ֧ӧߧѧ ѧܧڧܧ է֧ݧѧݧ էѧߧ ( ߧ ӧ֧ԧէ) ֧էڧߧߧڧާѧ֧ާާ; ҧ֧ ߧڧ ߧѧܧ ҧۧڧ ߧ ާا֧, ߧ ߧ ߧ ѧӧݧ ֧ ٧;


ާߧڧާ ݧӧ, ܧ ٧ӧѧ էڧߧѧܧӧ, ߧ ӧѧاѧ ѧ٧ߧ ߧڧ (ߧѧ., ܧݧ ٧ѧާܧ էߧڧ; ݧѧҧ ѧڧۧ ڧ٧ڧ֧ܧ ֧ӧѧ֧ާ); ߧѧܧ ߧ ӧ֧ԧէ ֧ҧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ܧߧ֧ܧ;

ڧߧߧڧާ ѧ٧ߧ ݧӧ, ӧѧاѧڧ էߧ ߧڧ (ߧѧ., ܧݧ էߧڧ, ާݧ֧ߧڧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ ߧڧާѧߧڧ ߧ֧ܧ);


ߧѧܧ ڧ ݧ֧է֧ ڧ٧ҧ֧ԧѧ ڧݧ ֧ܧ ֧է֧ݧ ѧ٧ݧڧڧ;
ҧѧ٧ߧ ӧѧا֧ߧڧ (ߧѧ., ݧڧܧ ӧߧڧާѧߧڧ), ܧ ߧ ӧ֧ԧէ էէѧ ߧާ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ;


֧ާڧߧ ߧѧߧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ߧڧ ާ ӧܧݧ֧ߧߧ ڧ֧ާ ٧ܧ ߧѧܧ.


? ٧ߧѧڧ էѧ ?֧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ?? ٧ߧѧڧ, ֧اէ ӧ֧ԧ, էӧ֧ էѧߧߧ ߧڧ էԧ, ҧݧ֧ ڧܧ?, ߧѧާڧߧѧ . . ֧ߧڧ.
էѧߧߧ ݧӧѧ ֧ާڧߧ, ӧѧاѧڧ ҧݧ֧ ڧܧ ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧ ߧڧ, ӧէ֧ݧ֧ߧ .

֧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ էѧا էҧߧ ҧߧ֧ߧڧ էݧاߧ էӧݧ֧ӧ ӧާ ֧ҧӧѧߧڧ, ާݧڧӧѧߧߧާ . ѧܧ:

?ħҧߧ֧ߧڧ, ܧ ߧ֧ ܧѧ٧ѧߧڧ ߧ differentia specifica, ߧ ֧ ҧߧ֧ߧڧ?.


ݧӧѧ, ֧ݧ ܧѧ٧ѧߧڧ ֧ڧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧ٧ݧڧڧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ާԧ ݧӧ ӧܧݧ֧ߧ ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ߧڧ, ߧ ѧܧا ӧէ֧ݧ ڧ, ߧ ڧߧѧ .

ڧѧߧڧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ާԧ ݧӧ ҧߧ է֧اڧ ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ߧڧ, ߧڧ ӧ٧ѧߧߧ ڧݧ ֧ާ էڧߧ֧ߧߧ; ߧ է֧ݧ֧ߧ ܧڧӧ.

ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ߧڧ ( ӧ֧ӧڧ ڧ ֧ާڧߧ) ڧާ֧ ӧ ڧ֧ѧڧ, ӧէ ҧ ڧ֧ѧڧ ߧѧߧ ߧڧ.

ѧڧҧݧ֧ ڧܧڧ ߧڧ, ӧݧڧ֧ ҧ֧ڧݧܧڧާ ܧѧ֧ԧڧާ.

ݧ ڧݧԧڧ, ܧѧ էݧ էԧڧ ߧѧ, ӧ ߧ: ާѧ֧ڧ, էӧڧا֧ߧڧ, ӧ֧ާ, ѧߧӧ, ܧݧڧ֧ӧ,
ܧѧ ֧ӧ, ڧӧ֧ڧ, ڧڧߧߧ, ߧ֧ҧէڧާ, ݧѧۧߧ, ާ, է֧اѧߧڧ, ӧ٧ާاߧ, է֧ۧӧڧ֧ݧߧ, ѧܧڧӧߧ, ӧߧ֧ߧߧ֧, ӧߧ֧ߧ֧ . . ڧާ֧ ާ֧էݧԧڧ֧ܧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ.

֧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ߧѧէ ڧܧѧ ڧݧܧ ߧڧܧݧ֧էڧ֧ܧ ݧӧѧ (., 1983).


ѧߧߧ ݧӧѧ, ֧էߧѧ٧ߧѧ֧ߧߧ էݧ ڧߧا֧ߧ֧ߧ-֧էѧԧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧҧߧڧܧ ڧ֧ާ ֧ڧߧѧݧߧ-֧ߧڧ֧ܧԧ ҧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ, ԧݧѧӧѧ ߧѧߧ-ާ֧էڧ֧ܧ ݧڧ֧ѧ, ڧ٧էѧӧѧ֧ާ էݧ ڧ֧ާ, է֧اڧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ݧ, ܧ ӧ֧ѧ ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧ ݧڧ֧ѧ.

ާ ߧ֧ԧ ӧܧݧ֧ߧ ߧ ݧܧ ݧӧ, ӧէڧ ڧ֧ާ ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ߧڧ, ߧ
ݧ ٧ܧ ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧ ߧѧܧ.

ҧ ԧݧҧا ѧ٧ҧѧ ݧҧ ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧ ߧڧ, ݧӧѧ֧ ݧ֧է֧ ݧ٧ӧѧ ѧ:


ߧѧۧ ѧݧѧӧڧ ߧاߧ ݧӧ ڧѧ ֧ԧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ;


ߧѧۧ ݧӧ, ӧէ֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ѧ٧էܧ, ܧ էӧէڧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ާ, ѧܧا ڧѧ ֧ԧ (ڧߧާ ݧӧѧާ, ѧ٧ҧѧ ҧէڧߧѧڧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ާԧ ҧݧ֧ ڧܧԧ ߧڧ);


էߧڧާѧ ڧ֧ѧڧ֧ܧ ݧ֧ߧڧ ߧڧ է ݧ ӧ٧ѧڧާէ֧ۧӧڧ, ѧ ֧ߧڧ ڧݧ ܧѧ֧ԧڧ;


ݧ ԧ, ӧ֧ߧӧڧ ߧاߧާ ݧӧ, ߧѧۧ ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧ާڧߧ, ӧէ֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ܧڧӧ ѧ٧էܧ ڧݧ ܧڧӧ, ڧѧ ڧ ڧѧߧڧ (ڧߧާ ݧӧѧާ, ѧ٧ҧѧ ܧէڧߧѧڧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ާԧ ߧڧ էԧڧާ, ߧѧڧҧݧ֧ ֧ߧ ӧ٧ѧߧߧާ ߧڧ ?ԧߧ֧٧է ߧڧ?).


֧ާڧߧ, ܧѧ ٧ѧԧݧѧӧߧ ݧӧ, է֧اڧ ߧڧ, ڧާ֧ڧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ݧӧѧ; ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ֧ܧާ֧ߧէ֧ ڧѧ ѧߧ.

ڧާ֧ ާԧ ݧاڧ ֧ާڧߧ: ٧ѧܧߧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ߧѧӧܧ, ѧڧҧ ݧڧߧ.


ާ ԧ, ߧѧէ ߧѧާߧڧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ էӧ ڧݧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧ާڧߧ, ڧݧ٧֧ާ ݧӧѧ:
ѧҧҧ֧ӧڧѧ ڧߧ ܧѧ֧ߧڧ ֧ާڧߧ, ֧ԧ ڧ ߧ֧ܧݧܧڧ ݧ (ߧѧ., ӧѧ ߧ֧ӧߧѧ է֧֧ݧߧ );


ݧݧڧڧ էܧѧ֧ާ ֧ߧڧ ݧӧ, ߧѧ, ڧݧѧԧѧ֧ݧߧԧ, ߧ֧ԧ ֧ާڧ, ֧ݧ ڧӧ֧է֧ ܧߧ֧ܧ, ا է֧اѧ֧ ߧ֧ߧڧ (ѧا֧ߧڧ ӧާ֧ ڧڧ֧ܧ ѧا֧ߧڧ ֧ܧ ڧݧԧڧ ڧݧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧߧ ӧާ֧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧߧ ݧڧߧ).


٧ݧѧԧѧ֧ާѧ ݧӧѧ ڧ֧ާ ߧڧ ѧاѧ֧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ߧڧ ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧ ߧѧܧ, ܧѧ էݧاѧ֧ ѧ٧ӧڧӧѧ , ߧ ӧ ֧էާ֧ ڧ֧ާ ܧѧ֧ԧڧ.


?֧ڧߧڧڧ ާا֧ ҧ ާߧԧ, ڧҧ ާߧԧ ֧էާ֧ѧ?, ܧѧ٧ӧѧ ..֧ߧڧ.

ާ, ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ, ߧ֧ ߧӧѧߧڧ ڧѧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ֧ߧڧ էԧڧ ڧ֧
ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ է֧ڧߧڧڧ.

ӧ


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